Animal cell vs plant cell


All plants and animals are composed of cells. These cells have a common form. These are eukaryotic cells – meaning they contain membrane bound organelles.

Animal cell

Animal Cell - The Definitive Guide | Biology Dictionary

Plant cell

Plant Cell - The Definitive Guide | Biology Dictionary

Organelles & features common to both animal and plant cells

Organelle/ featureFunction
NucleusThe nucleus stores and organizes the genetic information of the cell in the form DNA
VacuoleThe vacuole contains the water for the cell as well as acting to store ions and at times toxin for the cell to be later excreted.
MitochondriaThe mitochondria generates energy – it breaks down a molecule called pyruvate which comes from glucose into ATP. ATP is the energy currency of the cell.
Rough Endoplasmic reticulumThe rough ER is apart of the process of translating the RNA – which is a copy of the DNA stored in the nucleus – into proteins which can be used to build the cell.
RibosomesRibosomes are studded on the rough endoplasmic reticulum – they function to produce the proteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum Smooth ER moves the proteins that are manufactured around the cell to where they are required.
Golgi ApparatusThe Golgi apparatus encapsulates proteins or what ever the cell wants to remove from the cell in a cell membrane. This can then be removed from the cell.
CytoplasmThe cytoplasm is the fluid space inside the cell between the membrane bound organelles.
Cell membraneThe cell membrane determines what can enter and leave the cell, is involved in cell signaling and provides protection for the cell.
Chloroplast (only found in plants)The chloroplast transforms light energy into chemical potential energy.
Cell wall (only found in plants) The cell wall provides the cell with the ability to stand upright, it is through a turgid cell membrane that the cell wall has outwards pressure which acts as a support network allowing trees to grow so tall.



Question 1. [4 marks]

Compare and contrast animal and plant cell organelles.

Leave a Reply