All plants and animals are composed of cells. These cells have a common form. These are eukaryotic cells – meaning they contain membrane bound organelles.
Organelles & features common to both animal and plant cells
|Nucleus||The nucleus stores and organizes the genetic information of the cell in the form DNA|
|Vacuole||The vacuole contains the water for the cell as well as acting to store ions and at times toxin for the cell to be later excreted.|
|Mitochondria||The mitochondria generates energy – it breaks down a molecule called pyruvate which comes from glucose into ATP. ATP is the energy currency of the cell.|
|Rough Endoplasmic reticulum||The rough ER is apart of the process of translating the RNA – which is a copy of the DNA stored in the nucleus – into proteins which can be used to build the cell.|
|Ribosomes||Ribosomes are studded on the rough endoplasmic reticulum – they function to produce the proteins.|
|Smooth Endoplasmic reticulum||Smooth ER moves the proteins that are manufactured around the cell to where they are required.|
|Golgi Apparatus||The Golgi apparatus encapsulates proteins or what ever the cell wants to remove from the cell in a cell membrane. This can then be removed from the cell.|
|Cytoplasm||The cytoplasm is the fluid space inside the cell between the membrane bound organelles.|
|Cell membrane||The cell membrane determines what can enter and leave the cell, is involved in cell signaling and provides protection for the cell.|
|Chloroplast (only found in plants)||The chloroplast transforms light energy into chemical potential energy.|
|Cell wall (only found in plants)||The cell wall provides the cell with the ability to stand upright, it is through a turgid cell membrane that the cell wall has outwards pressure which acts as a support network allowing trees to grow so tall.|
Question 1. [4 marks]
Compare and contrast animal and plant cell organelles.