The universe is ever growing into more and more chaos. This is a law of thermodynamics. Gibbs free energy is able to tell us whether a reaction will occur. The three factors which influence this are whether the reaction creates chaos, whether heat will be released and what the temperature is.
Gibbs free energy is a useful formula we can use to determine whether chemical species which we mix together are going to react with one another in the given conditions. It is important to remember a chemical reaction is trying to achieve greater stability – the following formula can tell us whether a reaction would achieve a more stable configuration:
is the gibbs free energy (kJ),
* If this is negative the reaction is spontaneous in the given conditions
* If this is zero the reaction is at equilibrium
* If this is positive the reaction is not spontaneous in the given conditions
Is the change in enthalpy (kJ) – this means the change in the total heat content of the system
* If this value is positive the system is endothermic
* If this value is positive the system is exothermic
is the temperature of the system in kelvin (K) (be careful a common mistake is to use this in degrees)
When going from degrees celsius to kelvin, add 273.15
When going from kelvin to degrees celsius, subtract 273.15
Is the change in entropy (kJ/K). Entropy is the measure of disorder of a system. So if your room is really messy and chaotic, then it has high entropy. Disorder is more probable then order hence a system tends to become more disorder over time. However, it is important to keep in mind a system can become more ordered.
Entropy is increasing if (→ goes to)
- From (l) → (g)
- From (s) → (l)
- From (s) → (g)
- Fewer moles → more moles
This table summarises the conditions’ effect on Gibbs free energy, however, it is recommended to derive these by looking at the equation to minimise the need to memorise.
- is the gibbs free energy (kJ),
- If this is negative the reaction is spontaneous in the given conditions
- If this is zero the reaction is at equilibrium
- If this is positive the reaction is not spontaneous in the given conditions
- Is the change in enthalpy (kJ)
- temperature of the system in kelvin (K)
- Is the change in entropy (kJ/K)
Is the following reaction spontaneous or non spontaneous if the reaction vessel is at 273.1 K, the delta H is 273 kJ, delta S is 180 kJ/K?
Reactants are added to a reaction vessel at 244 degrees celsius, the H of products is 88 kJ and the H of reactants is 164 kJ. The delta S of this reaction is 273 kJ/K.
Is the reaction spontaneous or non spontaneous?
Delta S is 3400 J/K and Delta H is 270 kJ.
What temperature, if any, is required for this reaction to be spontaneous?
Delta G = -48885 kJ
Therefore the reaction is spontaneous.
244 -273 = -29K
164 – 88 = 76kJ
Delta G = 7993 kJ
Therefore the reaction is non spontaneous
3400/1000 = 3.4kJ
Delta G is negative ( Therefore, delta G < 0)
0 < 270 – T(3.4)
270 < T(3.4)
79.4 < T
T > 79.4