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Pharmacokinetics Exam

10 marks Question 1. The first pass principle can be described as a) The drug which is metabolized and excreted before it reaches systemic circulation b) The drug which reaches the portal vein and passes through the liver c) The drug which is metabolized by CYPs in the intestine and doesn’t reach circulation d) ExhalingContinue reading “Pharmacokinetics Exam”

Year 11 Separating Techniques

Chromatography – involves solvent separation on a solid medium and uses the different rate of movement of the solvent Decanting – separating a liquid from a solid/liquid by pouring out the top layer leaving the unwanted layer behind Distillation takes advantage of differences in boiling points allowing for liquids to be separated. For example water and foodContinue reading “Year 11 Separating Techniques”

Animal cell vs plant cell

Learn. All plants and animals are composed of cells. These cells have a common form. These are eukaryotic cells – meaning they contain membrane bound organelles. Animal cell Plant cell Organelles & features common to both animal and plant cells Organelle/ feature Function Nucleus The nucleus stores and organizes the genetic information of the cellContinue reading “Animal cell vs plant cell”

Drug action targets

G protein second messenger cascade Physiological antagonists Intrinsic activity of receptors Receptor desensitization Orthosteric and allosteric Learn. Recall that a muscarinic ACh receptor is a g coupled-protein receptor. These have seven proteins which go into and out of the cell and allow the ‘outside’ signals to be passed inside the cell. These then form secondaryContinue reading “Drug action targets”

Antagonists

Concentration effect curves for competitive agonists (reversible/ surmountable, non-reversible). Non-competitive inhibition (irreversible, allosteric, physiological antagonist) Reversible competitive antagonists dissociation constant Schild plot and the antagonist dissociation constant Antagonist KB is independent of agonist affinity, efficacy, and potency IC50 is potency, this is half the concentration of the antagonist which is required to reduce a maximalContinue reading “Antagonists”

Agonists

Agonist, antagonist Law of mass action Drug concentration, binding affinity, receptor number, antagonist Hill-Langmuir equation Direct binding experiments Potency – ED50 & pD2 Cooperativity Intrinsic activity Partial Agonists Learn. Agonists are both endogenous and exogenous – these are small molecules which form an agonist receptor complex resulting in the activation of the receptor. Agonists areContinue reading “Agonists”

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