(17 Marks) 30 mins
Short Answer Section
- C Esterification is an equilibrium reaction where increasing reactant pushes equilibrium to the right to reduce the stress on the system (la Chatliers principles). Boiling chips are used for even heating.
- D Lavosier stated all acids contain oxygen – we now know this to be false – in this case HCl is not an acid by lavoisier definition since it doesn’t contain oxygen
- D Concentrated acid will react with the alkanol group on ethanol creating ethene and water. A is incorrect since hydration of ethene requires high temperature 573 K and 60 ATP.
- D poly ethene is a common polymer, it can be high density – used in pipes or low density – glad wrap
- B – repeating monomer units alternating up and down – at this stage you just need to know this is the case. Don’t worry about explaining why.
6a) The atp, the temperature, impurities, wind
b) Use a wind sheild to limit heat loss through wind. Minimise heat loss by fine tuning distance of flame from the container.