HSC Biology 2021 Multiple Choice Questions

Welcome to your HSC Biology 2021 Multiple Choice Questions

1. 
A patient felt tired, weak and had a swollen neck. After following the doctor’s advice to eat more foods containing iodised salt, her symptoms disappeared.

What was the most likely cause of the patient’s symptoms?

2. 
Which of the following photographs shows an example of sexual reproduction?

3. 
A scientist transferred male gametes from one plant to another to achieve a desired characteristic in the offspring

Which genetic technology was the scientist using?

4. 
Which is the most effective strategy for treating non-infectious diseases?

5. 
Glucose levels are maintained by the hormones insulin and glucagon.

Which statement best describes the changes in hormone levels of a healthy human soon after a high glucose meal?

6. 
A mutation involving a DNA deletion is illustrated


Which statement about the mutation is correct?

7. 
Which of the following shows correct base pairing in DNA replication?

8. 
Howard Florey conducted a breakthrough experiment in the development and use of antibiotics. He infected eight mice with Streptococcus bacteria. Four mice were given penicillin and survived while the four untreated mice died.

What conclusion could be drawn from the data obtained?

9. 
Streptomycin is an antibiotic that kills bacteria by interfering with the function of their ribosomes

The primary effect of the antibiotic is that it prevents the bacteria from producing

10. 
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. Many different recessive alleles cause cystic fibrosis

The four most common alleles of the CFTR gene and their frequencies in the Australian population are shown in the table.


What will be the most common genotype of cystic fibrosis patients in Australia?

11. 
Many transgenic crops have been genetically engineered to have traits such as herbicide resistance. In at least four different crops the transgene has been found in nearby wild plant relatives of the cultivated crops.

What is the most likely reason for this observation?

12. 
The graph shows the levels of three hormones, oestrogen, progesterone and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), measured in the blood of a woman during her pregnancy.


Which statement can be inferred from the graph?

13. 
The photographs show an open and a closed stomate on a leaf surface. When open, stomates allow water vapour to pass out of the leaf.


Regulating stomates is a mechanism by which plants maintain water balance.
Which of the following graphs best illustrates this homeostatic mechanism?

14. 
The human PRNP gene codes for the prion protein. Misfolding of this protein may be the result of ingesting tissue that contains misfolded prion protein or a mutation. Accumulation of misfolded prion protein causes serious diseases such as Creutzfeldt– Jakob disease (CJD).

Which of the following statements best classifies CJD?

15. 
An example of the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation (UV) on DNA is shown in the diagram.


What is the mutagenic effect that is modelled?

16. 
Scientists conducted an experiment to investigate the effectiveness of treating water from storage dams with UV radiation. The experiment was conducted more than three times. The results are shown in the table.


What conclusion may be drawn from the data obtained?

17. 
The images show the sequence of changes in the chromosomes (stained black) during mitosis in plant cells.


Which statement is true for mitosis?

18. 
Which human pedigree shows inheritance of a recessive, sex-linked characteristic?

19. 
The ALDH alleles differ in their

Use the following information to answer Questions 19–20.

Alcohol that is consumed is broken down by the following pathway.


ALDH is the product of the ALDH gene. The normal allele is ALDH1 but many people have
the ALDH2 allele, which is associated with an increased risk of cancer.
Scientists have used mouse models to study the effects of ALDH2. They used wild-type mice
with ALDH1 alleles and genetically-engineered mice with one or two copies of the ALDH2 allele.
The mice were given a dose of alcohol and the response was measured. The results are shown.

The ALDH alleles differ in their

20. 
What do the data show about the effect of the ALDH2 allele?

Use the following information to answer Questions 19–20.

Alcohol that is consumed is broken down by the following pathway.


ALDH is the product of the ALDH gene. The normal allele is ALDH1 but many people have
the ALDH2 allele, which is associated with an increased risk of cancer.
Scientists have used mouse models to study the effects of ALDH2. They used wild-type mice
with ALDH1 alleles and genetically-engineered mice with one or two copies of the ALDH2 allele.
The mice were given a dose of alcohol and the response was measured. The results are shown.

What do the data show about the effect of the ALDH2 allele?

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